Film fanatics, environmental enthusiasts, and advocacy allies unite! The 7th annual Thunder Bay Environmental Film Festival is scheduled for next week, and the lineup is packed with 13 fascinating films for your viewing surprise and delight!
Organized by the Thunder Bay Environmental Film Network, the film fest is a much-anticipated highlight of the Film EFN’s ten-month season. The network identifies itself as an “incorporated not for profit volunteer organization that screens films from September to June for the public on environmental and social issues in order to inspire and empower the viewers. The network is a made up of individual audience members, supporting organizations, filmmakers and local experts.”
This year’s film festival is scheduled for Wednesday April 20th- Sunday April 24th, 2016. Wednesday to Friday, the festival holds evening screenings. The weekend admissions are full-day events, packed with fun for families and film buffs alike. All the films will be shown at the Maple Tops Activity Centre on 24 South Court Street. It is located in the Port Arthur Waterfront District, in the former Paramount Theatre building. The theatre’s concession will be open, and the film fest boasts organic popcorn as a prime snack. Festival admission is free, but donations are appreciated and help to fund current and future film fest costs.
Note: the EFN requests that attendees respect the festival as a scent-free environment, due to severe allergies of board and audience members.
The lineup boasts a range of quality film-making talent and compelling narratives. Filmgoers will be treated to a kaleidoscopic perspectives: a young Dene lawyer’s struggle to reconcile environmental concerns with job prospects amidst fracking operations in BC; snowboarders and surfers exploring the impact of resource extraction for the first time; nine local youths documenting environmental concerns in their hometowns; a Paraguayan youth orchestra which performs on instruments made of recycled material and garbage. Of particular note is the opening night’s film, “After the Last River,” a visual journey through Attawapiskat reserve and its struggles in the shadows of De Beers a mining operation.
Click here for the festival’s website. (They have trailers for the films, if you’d like a sneak peek!)
Sometimes being first isn’t anything to brag about.
News broke late last year that Lake Superior was the fastest warming of all the Great Lakes, according to a study done by a team of international researchers and authored primarily by a York University professor. The study also stated that Superior was the second fastest warming of the lakes the researchers studied globally. It clocked in behind Sweden’s Lake Fracksjon.
You might not feel it when you take a plunge off your dock in the summer, but it’s true. Why is Superior warming faster than smaller, shallower Great Lakes?
CBC summarized: “One [reason] is that lakes that are normally ice-covered in winter are melting earlier in the spring, exposing the lake to warmer air temperatures for a longer period of time. Another, ironically, is that decreased pollution in North America is leading to less smog and cloud cover.” As a result of the latter, the lakes are exposed to more solar radiation and warming faster.
The study provided some major points of concern for the lake warming (as reported by CBC):
- Algal blooms that suck the oxygen out of the lake water, choking out other organisms, are expected to increase 20 per cent over the next century.
- Algal blooms that are toxic to fish and humans are expected to increase by five per cent over the next century.
- An increase in emissions of the potent greenhouse gas methane is expected to increase four per cent over the next decade.
- Increased evaporation will cause a drop in lake water levels.
Invasive species are another threat. Lead author Sapna Sharma, an assistant professor at York University, told the Toronto Star that if the lakes warm too fast it may be tough for native wildlife species to adapt and survive. This leaves an opportunistic gap for invasive species to make themselves at home. Sharma warns that this alarming development is “especially true of Canadian lakes.”
The Poe’s going to go, people are saying. A new report confirms that if it does, the economy’s in trouble.
A replacement for the largest of the Soo Locks has been a hot issue lately. With the 2016 shipping season now underway, the issue has been raised again. The ‘Poe,’ a 1,200-foot-long channel, and its fellow locks are going on 50 years of use, and have seen more closures and repairs in recent years. Shipping companies, manufacturers, and politicians are all agitating to see a new Poe-sized lock built, and for good reason.
The Duluth News Tribune reported on March 16th that “a U.S. Department of Homeland Security report indicates a six-month shutdown of the Poe Lock in Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., if one occurred, would plunge the nation into recession, closing factories and mines, halting auto and appliance production in the U.S. for most of a year and result in the loss of some 11 million jobs across the nation.” The report was obtained via the Detroit Free Press through the Freedom of Information Act.
The figure only covers damages to the U.S. economy. There is no available information on how it would affect the Canadian economy, but a closure would likely do immense damage north of the border as well.
Though Congress authorized a second lock to be built about 30 years ago, no construction has yet been undertaken. The Obama administration granted $1.35 million last year to do a cost-benefit study of finally building a new Poe-sized lock. However, the study could take years to complete, and the total construction process is estimated at a decade. The project would need about $580 million to complete.
The Duluth News Tribune article summarizes the domino-effect of a closure of the Poe lock, noting that the Homeland Security report deems it “the Achilles’ heel of the North American industrial economy.” Effects would be wide-spread for the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Here are a few speculations from the report:
- “Iron ore mining would virtually stop and production of steel-related items — from cars and construction and equipment, to railcars and appliances — would halt, with millions losing work until the problem was resolved and work recommenced”
- “When the lock reopened, it would take months for mines and mills to return to full capacity […] And during the intervening period, unemployment would skyrocket, rising nearly 6 percent across the nation and even more in the Midwest, topping 20 percent in Michigan and Indiana.”
- “Any plans to react [to a closure]— by using trucks or rail, for instance, to move iron ore — would almost certainly fail.”
- “Without any redundancies or contingencies built into the system […] any long-term closure during the shipping season would almost inevitably lead to “a severe recession.”
The Homeland Security report’s authors didn’t make any recommendations, but mentioned that a new lock may not solve the problem immediately either, since construction could take many years to complete.
Political interests are pushing ahead regardless. The Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers had a minor blurb in their April 2016 Compass Newsletter touting growing support for the new Soo lock. The article reports that the Conference is developing a Governors’ and Premier’s Regional Strategy, which aims to double maritime trade in the Great Lakes, shrink the industry’s environmental impact, and provide support to the Great Lakes regions’ industrial core. Among the Initiative’s recommendations is advocacy effort among provincial and state leaders for the new Poe-sized lock.
Every Tuesday, we focus on Superior Environment stories. This article is part of a month-long focus on microplastics and their impact.
There’s a new offender in microplastics pollution which is often overlooked, and you’re wearing it.
Canadian Geographic reported recently that fleece and Gore-Tex clothing are major contributors to microplastics pollution. The article states that when garments made of synthetic materials are washed, almost 2000 plastic fibres can come loose and drain to water sources after the wash cycle. It cites a Swedish study to support its claim. Researchers were concerned by the effects of household discharge from Longyearbyen and sediment samples from the seabed in Aventfjorden.
The result was astounding: “Their work is not finished, but their findings so far are thought-provoking for environmentally conscious explorers: the wastewater from Longyearbyen contains huge amounts microplastics and the lion’s share of this originates from outdoor clothing. According to the researchers, more than 100 million particles go out every day.”
Microplastics and Clothing: Fast Facts
- Microplastic fibres are approximately < 1 mm in size.
- Fleece and other synthetic clothing shed them in the wash.
- Washing a single garment adds approximately 1900 fibres to wastewater. (Source: Environmental Scient & Technology, 2011)
- Studies have estimated there are now five trillion pieces of plastic in the world’s oceans. (Source: PLOS One Journal 2014.)
- Microplastics an be consumed by many organisms. They then accumulate in the food chain.
- A 2014 study estimated seafood consumers in Europe eat up to 11,000 pieces of microplastic each year. (Source: Environmental Pollution Oct 2014)
The Vancouver Aquarium has conducted similar research in the Vancouver area and greater British Columbia to demonstrate microplastics damage done by garments. Canadian Geographic spoke with Peter Ross, the director of the aquariums ocean pollution research program. His team released a study in 2015 which demonstrated that microplastics had entered the food chain through zooplankton. For the study, the research team considered four major areas in British Columbia: the Strait of Georgia; the west coast of Vancouver Island; the north coast of Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii; and the Pacific Ocean. They found that the Strait of Georgia had the highest concentration of fibres.
Ross tells Canadian Geographic: “This basically told us that humans living in coastal environments are releasing thousands of microplastics through their laundry and waste water. The problem is world-wide from the Arctic to the Antarctic, and it’s far more extensive than we imagined.”
The findings may be shocking, but they certainly aren’t new.
Before that, a research paper released by ecologist Mark Browne in 2011 is described as being a ‘landmark’ in research on microplastic fibre pollution. Browne and his team of researchers presented findings from 18 shorelines over 6 continents worldwide. The fibre accumulation was more noticeable in densely populated areas, leading Browne et. al. to believe they were coming from acrylic, nylon, and polyester in clothing.
Eager to work toward a solution, he began work on a program called Benign by Design in 2013. He had support from major scientists and researchers at institutions around the world, as well as the Environmental Protection Agency. The goal was simple: get scientists and designers to work together on less-damaging synthetic material.
In 2014, The Guardian reported that Browne was having major difficulties garnering attention for his work.He sought help and partnership from major clothing brands like Nike, Patagonia, and Polartec. Each are known heavy hitters in the industry of outdoor apparel, which use a lot of synthetic fabric for their product. None of them offered help, however. Without grants and support, it was difficult for Browne to move ahead with his research.
It’s a frustrating cycle, he told The Guardian: “Industry is saying, ‘you just have to do more work on it’. But that will require someone to support it. It seems to be a way of avoiding dealing with the problem.”
The Guardian article notes that a Canadian has come up with a small scale solution. For Blair Jollimore of Nova Scotia, necessity really was the mother of invention: “After his septic tank backed up and flooded his home, he discovered the main culprit was lint from his washing machine. So the former airplane engine mechanic [. . .] created a filter for his home laundry machine. “I’m a mechanical engineer, so I modified a water filter and added stainless steel screen,” says Jollimore. “I’ve been using it for 14 years.”
Since 2003, Jollimore has been selling these filters worldwide.
The Guardian article helped raise awareness for Browne’s research and he told MissionBlue: Sylvia Earle Alliance in January 2015 that his research team had received a grant from the Australian Research Council. They were to investigate the microplastics issue further, specifically to see how it would affect the food chain. Guardian Australia reports that Browne spoke in February 2016 in Sydney at an Austrailian Senate Inquiry on the matter. He is currently listed as an ARC Senior Researcher with the University of New South Wales.
Nipigon Bay, ON, is seeing residual microplastics wash up from a train derailment eight years ago. On May 3rd, we will be hosting a public meeting at Lake Helen (15 min from Nipigon) to engage in productive discussion and solution brainstorming for this microplastics problem in our own backyard. Join us – more details to come!
Michigan State Attorney General Bill Schuette has issued a letter to list his concerns over the City of Waukesha’s proposed bid to divert water from the Great Lakes Basin to replace its own contaminated water source. The letter was addressed the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors’ and Premiers’ Regional Body and the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Resources Council.
Waukesha’s diversion bid has drawn a number of objections since it was first proposed on January 7th of this year. The Milwaukee Riverkeeper website reports that the bid was three years in the making. Waukesha’s request tests the parametres of two major agreements which outline Great Lakes basin use: the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the 2005 Great Lakes – St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement. Schuette’s press release points out that “a critical element of the agreements is a prohibition on diversion programs to areas outside the Great Lakes basin unless a very specific and narrowly defined set of exception standards are met.”
Because Schuette is not one of the eight great lakes governors, he does not have any formal say in approving or denying Waukesha’s request. However, it’s been noted that he could file a lawsuit depending on the answer to that request.
The release goes on to identify Schuette’s major concerns, listed as follows:
“Since this request is the first of its kind, Schuette has a number of questions he is seeking to have answered in more detail, and is requesting that the City of Waukesha and State of Wisconsin answer the following before the bodies make final decisions on the plan:
- Need and service area: The City proposes to divert Lake Michigan water for use not only by the City itself, but some other adjoining communities. Do the other communities included in Waukesha’s proposal actually lack an adequate supply of potable water and need the Lake Michigan water? Is the larger water supply service area even a “Community within a Straddling County” eligible to apply for diversion under the Compact?
- Alternatives: Is there a reasonable water supply alternative that would not require Lake Michigan water?
- Return flow: Does Waukesha’s proposal satisfy Compact requirements for maximizing return flow of Lake Michigan water? Does it include enforceable mechanisms ensuring that the full volume of water will actually be returned to Lake Michigan?
- Protection of Great Lakes: Does the proposal ensure that there would be no significant adverse impacts to the Great Lakes? For example, will it ensure that invasive species, such as viruses, are not transferred into the Great Lakes through the return flows?”
Schuette’s letter adds to growing dissent in the weeks leading up to April 21st, when the Great Lakes governors meet in Chicago to discuss approval or denial of the request. Like Schuette, the Government of Ontario weighed in as well, even though they do not have formal say.
Is there anything better for a passionate paddler than calm waters, sunshine, and warm temps? Unless, of course, rushing rapids and driving rain is your thing. That’s cool too, we don’t judge.
With summer around the corner, kayakers and paddle pros have every reason to be excited. Living along the Great Lakes shores provides a massive playground for boating adventures of all stripe. We’ve compiled some don’t-miss events for anyone who’s itching to get their oars out.
1. Wilderness Supply REEL Paddling Film Festival (Thunder Bay, ON – April 19th, 2016)
The Reel Paddling Film Festival is a tour which shows the best paddling films in over 120 cities around the world – and it’s coming to Thunder Bay for the first time, for one night only. The event promises to be friendly to paddle junkies, adventure enthusiasts, film buffs, and newbies alike. The tour’s gorgeous website has sneak previews with action-packed footage: click here, and then click ‘watch’ to get a taste. From sweeping shoreline vistas to heart-pounding POV footage going over rapids, we’re sold!
The event’s sponsors will be giving away prizes as well. Your ticket purchase qualifies you to win gear from Level Six, Grey Owl Paddles, GORP Clean Energy Bars, and WAVPaddling.
Sponsored primarily by Wilderness Supply and WAV Paddling, the Film Fest is at the Paramount Theatre on Tuesday, April 19th: doors at 6:30pm, show 7pm-10pm. Tickets are $15 advance, $17 at the door. You can buy tickets online here, or go directly to Wilderness Supply at 244 Pearl Street to purchase.
2. Michigan Water Trails: Upper Peninsula Water Trails (Michigan, Lake Superior Shoreline)
The Michigan Water Trails have got five major water trails to be enjoyed along Michigan’s Lake Superior Shoreline. The Isle Royal National Park Trail; Western Upper Peninsula Trail; Hiawatha Water Trail; Lake Superior East Trail; and the St. Mary’s River Island Explorer Trail. Their locations range from Isle Royal, Grand Marais, Whitefish Point, Sault Ste Marie, Drummond Island, and more.
Boasting over 3000 miles of shoreline to explore for canoeists, kayakers, and stand up paddle-boarders, the site offers tools to help you plan your own adventure. Interactive maps allow you to see photos of the shoreline, as well as the trail’s route. It also helps you choose a route based on what you’re most interested in, narrowing your focus by attractions, camp sites, amenities, historical sites, harbours, and more. It’s definitely advisable that paddlers, whether old pros or novice newbies, read up on safety and weather precautions before venturing into the water trails. Luckily, Michigan Water Trails offers tonnes of info on weather warnings, recommended gear, paddling etiquette, accessibility, paddling safety, cautions on Lake Superior’s rip tides, and more.
This is a fantastic resource for the self-starting paddler. Take a look, plan your summer adventure, and make sure you read everything on the site before heading out! Best practices = best experiences.
3. Voyageur Musical Paddling Tour (Rossport, ON to Red Rock, ON – July 31, 2016– Aug 5, 2016)
We’ve saved the best for last!
This unique experience aims to weave together “three quintessential Canadian experiences: paddling a Voyageur Canoe, exploring Lake Superior’s north shore, and enjoying live folk/blues music alongside a cozy campfire.”
Over the span of a week, paddlers make their way from Rossport, ON to Red Rock, ON in time to enjoy the Red Rock Folk and Blues Festival. They travel in a replica of the 36-foot canoes used by voyageurs who traversed Lake Superior for the fur trade centuries ago. Don’t let the rugged impression scare you off: the boat is 5 feet wide, stable in windy. wavy conditions, and there’s plenty of guidance for novice paddlers. Every year, the tour features a different guide who navigates the canoe, keeps you entertained with stories, and jams with paddlers BYOI (Bring Your Own Instrument!)
The tour’s route is among the best along Lake Superior. “From the quaint community of Rossport extends westwards through Superior’s Sibley Island archipelago, a chain of scenic, semi-mountainous islands complete with agates, lighthouses and wilderness saunas. Fascinating flora and fauna, wondrous geology, crystal clear waters and protected wilderness stretch as far as the eye can see. It’s all part of Canada’s newest National Marine Conservation Reserve. This trip finishes with a tobacco offering at the pictographs on the Nipigon River adjacent to the Red Rock community grounds where the festival is held.”
This year, the tour will be held from July 31st, 2016 – August 5th, 2016, with the option of staying in Red Rock to enjoy the folk festival. The cost is $1045 Cdn + HST (Folk Fest tickets must be purchased separately, at additional cost.) The cost includes “Full guiding, Voyageur Canoe and camp outfitting, hardy and healthy meals (except Sunday evening), live entertainment, vehicle shuttles, park fees.”
For a taste of the tour, check out this video by Joe Baur! A review of the tour is up on the Northern Ontario Travel blog as well.
Phosphorous-induced algae blooms have researchers buzzing with concern, from Thunder Bay, ON and Toledo, OH.
Phosphorous breeds algae, and algae means bad news for drinking water, tourism, and ecosystems.
Recently, research was presented at Lakehead University about algae and phosphorous levels in Cloud Lake, a small inland lake in the Thunder Bay, ON region. Graduate student Nathan Wilson and undergraduate student Kyle Wight discussed their findings: several types of algae present, elevated phosphorous levels, and large numbers of bass fish.
Overseen by Dr. Rob Stewart and Jason Freeburn of the Department of Geography and Environmental Science, the research was done to determine why Cloud Lake’s algae has increased, and why its fish populations and species have undergone substantial changes in recent years.
Phosphorous is a major contributor to algae blooms. Data collected indicates phosphorous is present at elevated levels both in tributary streams flowing into Cloud Lake, and in sediment samples taken from the bottom of the lake. Water outflow from Cloud Lake is limited. The lake’s Cloud River outflow drains to Cloud Bay on Lake Superior, some 9 km. from the lake itself.
- Use no-phosphorous fertilizer on lawns and gardens – Be sure to check the bags when you buy them. Look for the package formula of nitrate-phosphorus-potassium, such as 22-0-15. The middle number, representing phosphorus, should be 0.
- Keep grass clippings on the lawns – When mowing the grass, avoid blowing grass clippings into the street, where they wash into storm sewers that drain to lakes and rivers.
- Keep leaves and other organic matter out of the street – Again, streets drain to storm sewers, which in turn drain to rivers and lakes.
- Sweep it – Sweep up any grass clippings or fertilizer spills on driveways, sidewalks and streets.
- Leave a wide strip of deep-rooted plants along shore-land – Instead of planting and mowing turfgrass here, plant wildflowers, ornamental grasses, shrubs or trees. These plantings absorb and filter runoff that contains nutrients and soil, as well as provide habitat for wildlife. (source: Minnesota Pollution Control Agency)
Ohio has seen phosphorous-related algae issues on a much, much larger scale recently. The New York Times reported on the Toledo Water Crisis of 2014. At the time, phosphorous run-off from farms, cattle feed-lots, and leaky septic fields was contributing to massive, toxic algae blooms. The largest recorded was 120 miles, stretching from Toledo to Cleveland in 2011. In 2014, Toledo’s drinking water was having serious issues:
“In Lake Erie’s case, the phosphorus feeds a poisonous algae whose toxin, called microcystin, causes diarrhea, vomiting and liver-function problems, and readily kills dogs and other small animals that drink contaminated water. Toledo was unlucky: A small bloom of toxic algae happened to form directly over the city’s water-intake pipe in Lake Erie, miles offshore.
Beyond the dangers to people and animals, the algae wreak tens of billions of dollars of damage on commercial fishing and on the recreational and vacation trades. With conservationists and utility officials […], representatives of those industries have for years called for some way to limit the phosphorus flowing into waterways.”
While phosphorous levels were reduced and the water declared safe to drink by Toledo Mayor D. Michael Collins in August 2014, the issue is far from resolved. The article reports that federal bodies are limited in their ability to restrict fertilizer use, and calls for voluntary restrictions have mostly gone ignored. The Clean Water Act has come under fire in Congress, receiving pushback from fertilizer industry lobbyists and Republicans who believe it infringes on private rights and threatens farmers.
Last week, the Ohio Sea Grant released its first annual progress report on the Harmful Algal Bloom Research Initiative, carried out by the Ohio Department of Higher Education. A press release from the OSG stated that findings were based on 18 projects completed under the $4 million dollar initiative. According to the release, these projects “provided needed answers that have helped water treatment operators, regulators, farmers and legislators deal with harmful algal blooms, predict future scenarios and lay a foundation for long-term bloom mitigation and prevention.”
A second round of 31 projects is slated to begin this month. The first annual report can be found here.
Thunder Bay, ON, and Duluth, MN, tipped their Top Hats to the first ‘salties’ of the season last week. The ocean freight vessels nipped at the heels of ‘lakers’ (lake freighters) which cruised into port days before.
As reported by TB Newswatch, the MV Federal Barents took the honour in Thunder Bay, arriving in port on Tuesday March 29th. Captain Karl Fernandes and crew were awarded by the Thunder Bay Port Authority at Richardson’s main elevator. Along with others before him, Capt. Fernandes signed his name to the inside of an actual top hat to mark the occasion. The MV Federal Barents is hauling 21,000 tonnes of lentils to Mersin, Turkey.
The MV Federal Barents missed breaking records by only two days. It is the second-ever ocean vessel to enter port before April. Port Authority CEO Tim Heney explained that the Barents arrived Tuesday, but didn’t cross the breakwall until later, at an unspecified time. The ship is not recorded until it passes the breakwall. “It would have been a record,” he told TB Newswatch.
Photo credit of the MV Federal Barents to nikkiidiixon14, via TB Newswatch.
The Duluth News Tribune reported that the Albanyborg crossed into the Duluth Harbour on Sunday April 3rd at 7:41pm. Officials from the Duluth Seaway Port Authority greeted Captain Igor Bunenkov and his crew with gifts.
In addition to being the first ocean vessel to Twin Ports, the Albanyborg was the first saltie to enter the St. Lawrence Seaway on March 23rd. The ship delivered wind turbine parts from Emden, Germany to Port Colborne, ON and continued on to Duluth to receive a load of grain.
Though the Albanyborg is from a Dutch fleet, its crew hails from all over the globe. Capt. Bunenkov is from the Ukraine, one of his first officers is Vietnamese, and much of his crew hails from the Philippines. The ship is part of the Royal Wagenborg fleet, with whom the Duluth Seaway Port Authority has a good relationship.
The Albanyborg can be seen entering port in this video below, by YouTube user @alaricdogface.
Microplastics: they’re the buzzword of freshwater and oceanic environmental issues.
Heard of ’em? Then you know how bad they are.
No clue? Here’s a hint: you’re probably using them at least once a day. You’re polluting, and you don’t even know it.
Here are the headlines:
- Microbeads are tiny, spherical plastic particles ranging in size from an invisible 1 micrometer to 5 millimeters and are a subcategory of microplastics pollution.
- They’re manufactured and added to cosmetics, face washes, toothpastes, deodorants, hair coloring, shaving creams and sunscreens.
- They’re washed off the body, down drains, and wind up in waterways. They’re too small for sewage treatment plants to catch.
- Once in the waterway, wildlife ingest them as food. It goes back up the food chain if we ingest the animals.
- Avoid products which have polyethylene and polypropylene. These are the worst offenders. For example, these products are known to have microbeads:
The IJC has a four-part series of comprehensive articles on microplastics. Here are the links:
- Part 1: Tiny Plastics Inflict Huge Environmental and Human Health Impact
- Part 2: History and Evolution of the Microbead
- Part 3: Consumer Decisions Can Curb Microbead Pollution
- Part 4: Legislative Update
No time to read? This stunning 4 and a half minute video will give you the gist.
Nipigon Bay, ON, is seeing residual microplastics wash up from a train derailment eight years ago. On May 3rd, we will be hosting a public meeting at Lake Helen (15 min from Nipigon) to discuss this microplastics problem in our own backyard. Join us – more details to come!
Every Tuesday, we focus on Superior Environment stories. This article is part of a month-long focus on microplastics and their impact.
The International Joint Commission is reaching out to the public to submit and discuss opinions about Great Lakes protection.
A recent email from the Great Lakes Information Network came with an invitation from the IJC to participate in a public discussion of one of the largest-ever Canada-U.S. public opinion polls on the Great Lakes.